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Terracotta Warriors

Terracotta Warriors

  • Terracotta Warriors is regarded as the Eighth Wonder of the World. More than 8,000 different looking pottery figures depicting the imperial guard troops were made to protect the mausoleum of the emperor. Every figure differs from those around in facial features and expression, clothing, hairstyle, and gestures.

Profile

  • ID : 36
  • City : Xian
  • English name : Terra Cotta
  • Chinese name : 兵马俑
  • Type : Museum,Ancient Mausoleum,
  • Level : easy
  • Kids : Possible
  • Elders: Possible
  • Best season : All seasons
  • Visiting length : 6 hours
  • Distance to city center : 50 km

Introduction of Terracotta Warriors

  • Terracotta Warriors is the form of funerary art buried with Emperor Qin Shihuang, the first unifier of China dating back to 210 BC. More than 8,000 different looking pottery figures depicting the imperial guard troops were made to protect the mausoleum of the emperor. Every figure differs from those around in facial features and expression, clothing, hairstyle, and gestures. 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses are scatted in three excavated pits. Terracotta Army is regarded as the Eighth Wonder of the World, because of its historical significance and uniqueness.

Photo of Terra Cotta

  • Terra Cotta photo

Highlights of visiting Terracotta Warriors

    Pit 1, Pit 2, Pit 3, Exhibition Hall of Bronze Horse Chariots

Helper to visit Terra Cotta

  • Address in English : Qingling North Road, Lintong District, Xian, China
  • Address in Chinese : 陕西省西安市临潼区秦陵北路
  • Tel : +86-29-81399127
  • Post code : 710600
  • Ticket time : 8:30 - 17:00(March 16th to November 15th), 8:30 - 16:30(November 16th to March 15th)
  • Open time : 8:30 - 18:35(March 16th to November 15th), 8:30 - 18:05(November 16th to March 15th)
  • Closing time : Null
  • Location : Terra Cotta is around 50 km to downtown Xian

    Transportation

  • Public bus: Bus 306, 914,915 from the east side of Xian Train Station and get off at the Bingmayong Station
  • Private car is the best method to visit Terra Cotta with local tour operator.

Admission

  • high season : 150 RMB/person.
  • shoulder season : 150 RMB/person.
  • low season : 150 RMB/person.

Terracotta Warriors Tour

Please send us an email if you can not find Terra Cotta tour you need on this page. We can tailor a private trip to Terra Cotta.

Hotel near Terracotta Warriors

  • 5 star/duluxe hotel
  • Fu Lin Hotel
  • Elegant Oriental Hotel
  • Xi’an Hua Qing Palace Hotel & Spa
  • Angsana Xi'an Lintong
  • 4 star/superior hotel
  • Modern Aegean Apartment Hotel
  • Huaqing Aegean International Hot Springs Resort & Spa
  • 3 star/comfort hotel
  • Lishan International Holiday Hotel
  • Vienna International Hotel (Xi'an Terra Cotta Warriors)
  • Xinyuan Yongqing Hotel
  • Historical Background of Terracotta Warriors
  • During the Yinshang Dynasty ((1600-1046 BCE), the nobilities used slaves as sacrifice after they died. Human sacrifice was a cruel and barbaric funeral system. In the excavated royal tombs of Yinxu in Anyang, more than 5,000 slaves have been found to be killed or life or buried alive. In the Xizhou Dynasty ((1046-770 BCE), "be moral to the people" was emphasized. The human sacrifice was greatly suppressed, but it had not been eradicated. Not until the Warring States Period (475-221 BCE), the human sacrifice was abolish, and pottery figure or wood figure was used as sacrifice instead of living person. Terracotta Warriors and Horses is the typical and highest representative of using pottery figure as funeral objects.
  • History of Terracotta Warriors
  • In 246BC, Qin Shi Huang , the first Emperor of Qin Dynasty, at the age of 13, ordered to be built his tomb shortly after he ascended the throne. The Terracotta Army was begun to build as protection for the tomb. The construction took about 40 years by 720,000 workers.
    In 1974, the Pit 1 was found 1.5 kilometers east of the Emperor Qin's mausoleum when local farmers digging a well.
    In 1976, more pits were found including Pit 2, Pit 3, and some accessory pits.
    In 1979, The Emperor Qin Shi Huang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum built on the site where the Terracotta Army was open to public.
    In 1987, the Emperor Qin's Mausoleum including Terracotta Army was put on the list of the UNESCO as a world-class cultural heritage site.
    In 2007, The Emperor Qin Shi Huang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum was listed one of the first national 5A-class tourist attractions.
    In 2009, Based on the Emperor Qin Shi Huang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum, The Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum Site Museum was established.
    In 2010, The Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum Site Park was open to public. As a part of the museum, the visitors can visit this park with the ticket of museum.

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    • Main exhibition halls of Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum
    • The Emperor Qin Shi Huang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum mainly consists of 3 pits and the Exhibition Hall of Bronze Horse Chariots. The pit 1 is the largest one, covering an area of 14,260 square meters. It is the main army array of chariots and infantry. Archaeologists had discovered about 2,000 pottery figures in this pit. The pit 2 is the highlight of Terracotta Army. It covers an area of 6,000 square meters and consists of four units. The four square arrays are composed of chariots, cavalry and archers. The pit 3 is the command post of the army array, covering an area of 524 square meters. In 1980, two large bronze horse chariots were found 20 meters west of the Emperor Qin's Mausoleum. They are the biggest bronze ware in the archaeological history of the world.
    • Pit 1 Pit 1 was accidentally discovered by local farmers while digging a well in 1974. It is in a rectangular shape, 230 meters long from east to west, 62 meters wide from north to south and 5 meters deep. Covering an area of 114,260 square meters, it estimated that there are about 6,000 pottery figures and 50 chariots in this pit. The archaeologists had discovered 2,000 pottery figures and about 10,000 pieces of various bronze wares. The pottery figures were arranged with precision battle formation in corridors divided by earth-rammed partition walls. The three rows of warriors in the east are vanguards, 68 in each row, facing east, dressed in battle tunics and puttees. Close behind are the 38 rows of warriors, with chariots in each of the rows. The warriors, armor-clad, holding long-shaft weapons, are the main force. On the south, north, and west side, there is a row of warriors facing south, north and west standing each side, serving as wing guards and rear guards. All the pottery figurines are different in clothing, hairstyle, gestures and facial expressions.
    • Pit 2 Pit 2, found in 1976, is 20 meters northeast of Pit 1. It is the highlight of Terracotta Army and uncovers the mystery of the ancient army array. It is in L-shape, 96 meters long from east to west, 84 meters wide from north to south and 5 meters deep, totally covering an area of 6,000 square meters. The warriors are consists of four arrays. The first array in the east is in a square shape. There are 60 standing archers around the corridors and 160 kneeling of 8 rows in the center. The second array in the right side is a chariot array, and is composed of 64 chariots. The chariots were divided into eight rows. Each chariot was pulled by four life-sized terracotta horses, and accompanied with 3 warriors on the back. The third array is in rectangular shape and in the center of the pit. The array has 3 rows, consisting of 19 chariots, 264 foot soldiers and 8 cavalrymen. The cavalryman standing in front of the horse are holding the rein with one hand and drawing a bow with the other hand. The fourth array in the north side is the rectangular cavalry array. 108 cavalrymen and 180 terracotta horses with saddles lined up in 11 rows. These four arrays form a rigorous and impeccable battle array, which can both attack and defend. There are multiple exhibition halls to the east of Pit 2, displaying the cultural relics unearthed from this pit. Visitors can find various representative pottery figures and bronze weapons there.
    • Pit 3 Pit 3, also found in 1976, is 25 meters northwest of the Pit 1. It is in the shape of the Chinese character "凹",covering an area of 520 square meters. This pit was the command post of the Terracotta Warriors in the Pit 1 and Pit 2. It is consists of the southern and northern wing rooms, and a chariot and horse chamber. There is a chariot led by four horses and four warriors in the chariot and horse chamber. Total 68 terracotta warriors were unearthed from this pit, and the heads of most of them had missed. The Pit 3 is the image of the earliest military command post in the archaeological history of the world.
    • Exhibition Hall of Bronze Horse Chariots In December 1980, two large bronze chariots and horses were found 20 meters west of the Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum. They were displayed in 1983 after repair. These two chariots are pulled by four horses, lined up with one in front of the other. Each chariot was assembled from 3,400 parts. A lot of skills such as casting, welding, riveting, bordering, embedding, carving and sculpturing were used in making the chariots. The No.1 chariot is equipped with bows, arrowheads and shields serving as the guard for the No.2 chariot behind. The No.2 chariot is 3.17 meters long and 1.06 meters high. The horses have a height of 65-67 centimeters and a length of 1.2 meters, richly adorned with gold and silver trappings. The chariot is driven by a kneeling warrior. With refined manufacturing techniques and lifelike image, the No.2 chariot is a treasure of bronze ware. It is also the largest bronze ware in the archaeological history of the world.
    More Photo
    • Type of Terracotta Warriors
    • The Terracotta Warriors unearthed can be divided into two categories distinguished by their identities, military officer and soldiers. The officers have high, middle and lower ranks. The soldiers can be further divided into subcategories, infantry, cavalry, and charioteers. Every warrior has its distinct facial expression, clothing and hairstyle.
    • Military officers The high-ranking officer (also called general) has a very small number. Only 9 officers have been unearthed from the pits so far. They are tall and wear the hat decorated with feather. 2 of them are in battle robes and the others wear armors. There are eight colored knots on the front chest, back and shoulders of the armors, indicating the rank and identity of the officers. The middle-ranking and lower-ranking officers vary the general in costumes, and also their spirits have a slight difference. Though they are not taller than the generals, they are relatively tall, with wide shoulders, standing solemnly.
    • Kneeling Archers and Standing Archers The Kneeling Archers and Standing Archers were unearthed in the Pit 2. They make up an archer array. Kneeling Archers are in the middle and the standing archers are around.
      Kneeling Archers wear long robes covered with armor. Their hair was bound in a bun on the left side of the head. They squat their left legs and hit their right knees on the ground. They turn their bodies left slightly, and make an action of holding the bow. The Standing Archers wear long robes with no armor. Their hair was bound in a round bun on the right side of the head. Their left feet are vertical and right feet horizontal, in the shape of the Chinese character "丁". Their postures depict the scene of long-range shooting row during the ancient time.
    • Cavalry Warriors Cavalry Warriors were unearthed in the Pit 2, altogether 116 pieces. They are mainly responsible for attacking the enemy surprisingly. They wear rounded hat, tight-cuffs robe and short armors, long tight pants and short boots. The robe and armor are shorter other warriors and have no protect pieces on shoulder and hand, which make the Cavalry Warriors mount the horses more easily. Each cavalryman stands on the left front side of the horse, holding the rein in one hand and bow in the other. The Cavalry Warriors are the earliest figures found in Chinese archaeological history. They provide valuable materials for studying the cavalry costumes and equipment at that time.
    • Charioteers Charioteers were unearthed in the three pits. They can be further divided into chariot drivers and chariot warriors. The chariot drivers wear long robes covered with armor, scarves and long crowns on their heads. They have extra protect pieces on wrists, hands, legs and necks. Their arms stretch out to pull the reins. The chariots are made of wood, single shaft and two wheels, pulled by three or four horses. They have a strong destruction in ancient war. So the chariot drivers are particularly important. Chariot warriors are the soldiers on the chariot besides the chariot drivers. Commonly, there is each warrior on left and right side of the chariot. The dresses of them are the same with chariot driver. The warrior on the left side holds a long weapon with left hand, such as spear, dagger-axe, scorpion, or halberd, and pushes the chariot with right hand. The posture of the warrior on the right side is reversed. Chariot warriors are responsible for fighting against enemies from both sides. Additionally, some chariot commanders were found on the chariots, which are responsible for giving commands of fighting.
    • Craftsmen making the Terracotta Warrior
    • The craftsmen making the Terracotta Warriors are the low-status potters. Some of them came from pottery workshops of government, and some came from private pottery workshops all over the country. More than 80 names were found to be carved or stamped on the body of the Terracotta Warriors. The craftsmen from different workshops have differences in the skills and techniques of making the Terracotta Warriors.
    • Making procedure of Terracotta Warriors
    • It took about 4 steps to make Terracotta Warriors
      1. Make the parts of figures separately, head, torso, arms, hands and legs.
      Firstly, the parts of the pottery figures were made in molds separately. The material used is yellow earth dug on the spot, mixed with some quartz sand.
      Then the parts were covered a layer of mud to be carved the details. After detailed carving, every figure had its distinctive feature.
      2. Assemble the parts.
      The parts were assembled and a pottery figure was completed. After detailed carving, every figure had its distinctive feature.
      3. Fire the figures in a kiln.
      The pottery figures were fired in the kilns after dried in shade. The temperature in the kilns is about 1,000 ℃.
      4. Color the figures.
      The craftsmen paint the pottery figures after firing with colored pigments. More than 10 kinds of colors made of mineral such as red, green, blue, yellow, purple, brown, white, black and deep red were used to make the figures more lifelike. Most figures unearthed are grey. They have lost their original color because of erosion and oxidation of over 2,000 years.
    • Other attractions
    • If travelers have enough time, they can visit the Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum Site Park (Lishan Garden) with the same ticket. The park is 2,200 meters to the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum. There are free shuttle buses between the museum and the park. The site park covers about an area of 56.25 square kilometers, mainly includes tumulus of Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, the Pit of Terracotta Civil Officials (Pit K0006) and the Pit of Terracotta Acrobatics (Pit K9901).
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